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Apr 28, 2023
Redmine Project Managment Tools

What is the Redmine Plugin?

One of the most popular open-source project management software, Redmine has plenty of useful features for people downloading both the free and paid versions. However, what makes it superior to other similar facilities is that you can easily pair Redmine plugins with premium features.

In this article, we discuss at length the basic concept of Redmine, Redmine plugin development, and the features it provides. Then we dig into the more important stuff- plugins that help Redmine users make the most out of it and work efficiently. These plugins will actually make project management much easier and more efficient for you.

From small to large personal or corporate projects, you can use Redmine as a powerful system. All major operating systems like Windows and macOS are compatible with this software. Additionally, users must install Ruby for the efficient functioning of Redmine.

This software has been specifically designed to be extremely flexible. Every project will retain its individual features and users, but most of the default settings work equally well for all projects.

What is the Redmine Project Management Tool?

A free and open-source web-based tool for efficient project management and tracking issues, Redmine was developed by Jean-Philippe Lang. Users can easily handle multiple projects and related sub-projects using this software. For every project, forums, time tracking, access control, Gantt charts, and other features are available, using project teams can provide their clients with an advanced visual representation of the project and also, deliver within the stipulated time. Thai software can be integrated with different version control systems and also provides its users with a diff viewer and repository browser. 

Although Redmine was initially released 16 years ago, on June 25, 2006, it found a stable release on March 5, 2023.

The software has been specially designed based on the software package Trac which also provides its clients with similar facilities.

The framework used for Redmine is Ruby on Rails. Available in 49 languages, it is cross-platform as well as cross-database.

  • Is Redmine Free or Paid?

Most of the features on the Redmine app are free, but users have access to special plugins at reasonable prices. The Pro versions of these plugins are available for more efficient project management. So, if you want to use tools for better project design and meet deadlines more quickly, you can buy these Redmine plugins, generally priced between $25 to $499 and more.

  • Is Redmine A Secure Tool?

The Redmine Cloud service enables project teams to handle their duties more efficiently. They can focus on the principal activities and scale quickly as needed. The team is truly dedicated to ensuring the security of the user company data. Also, the website provides detailed information so that users can evaluate the software’s security methods and policies before using it.

  • Redmine is an open-source software

The Redmine community has provided its users with relentless service for the past ten years. They have given access to free plugins, various themes, and issue fixes. Throughout the various versions of Redmine released, beginning from 1.3.0, users can also check their list of security vulnerabilities, if they want.

  • Redmine provides efficient plugins.

Remine has consistently developed new plugins and supported all core releases. Every plugin is regularly updated and compatible with the newly released versions of Redmine.

  • Redmine provides data encryption with TLS/SSL

Redmine uses SSL to encrypt a server’s HTTP traffic. Thai ensures that no wanted user or traffickers online get involved in communications done to and from a user’s account on the app. Since you get a valid and trustworthy certificate, no error messages will be found in your browsers, and the possibility of external interception is minimal.

  • Redmine provides regular backups from two different services

Redmine has a very trustworthy backup service that is efficient and cost-effective for users. You can easily back up your account data regularly so that you can easily meet your regulatory backup compliance needs. Also, apart from the source services, Amazon Web Services, a partner of Redmine, provides a second backup. Both these backups have erupted copies, in transit or at rest. Therefore, all your data on the app gets a double protective layer. Also, Redmine allows its users to download backups from the Cloud if required.

  • Redmine provides a firewall manager and app load balancer

With a dedicated firewall manager, Redmine monitors all incoming and outgoing network traffic. Any unsanctioned access, like scans or online attacks, can be easily detected using this feature. Since traffic patterns are regularly tracked, any unusual occurrence will be reported immediately. The App Load Balancer tool is used to route requests made by clients to make sure individual servers aren’t overworked. It can determine factors responsible for the degradation of app performance and balance incoming requests almond the servers so that maximum functionality is ensured. If one server goes down, the load balancer will automatically redirect traffic to the other online servers. 

  • Redmine provided individual, secure clusters to each client.

The Kubernetes cluster management used by Redmine manages infrastructure and app delivery. Git is the single source for declarative applications and facilities. With efficient corrections, security assurance, and strong cryptography backup, Git is very popular among users. Using these platform features, users can track and modify code changes and sign them to verify authorship. Therefore, you get a secure and perfect definition of the clusters’ state. In case of any security breach, the true source can recreate a new system completely independent of the one that has been somehow compromised. Also, to protect users from hacker attacks, the software is separated between its development and released into a production environment. Therefore, the POLP, or least privilege security principle, is embodied by Redmine.

  • Redmine provides SLA for the enterprise.

The cloud information stability and functionality of Redmine are so reliable that they readily provide clients with a legal guarantee, the SLA or Service Level Agreement. Every cloud gets its individual customer manager. The app provides its cloud service with a guaranteed 99.8% availability. The SLA bug fix efficiently fixes security issues in any of the app’s facilities provided. Throughout the week, on every working day, users have access to customer support through email. All requests are taken care of within 24 hours, and any urgent request is immediately dealt with through a video call with the respective account manager.

  • Redmine provides a privacy policy.

Privacy is a very important factor in Redmine software. They ensure every client is satisfied with privacy and also have easy access to all their data. This rule is applicable for both companies trying to comply with global privacy regulations like GDPR or any privacy-oriented user with access to data. Therefore, Redmine is committed to providing its clients with the highest privacy level regarding their personal data and supporting the organization by securing their data. Access to data is restricted on a ‘requirement to access’ basis. They exercise stringent controls over all information, and new employees and contractors are meticulously trained with the latest security practices. Within Redmine, only a certain authorized number of employees can access customer information stored in the applications. For others, authentication via single passphrase-protected keys is required, and the servers only accept SSH connections from Redmine servers.

  • Redmine provides active directory integration with SAML on request.

On Redmine, you can easily connect Active Directory to your account using SAML, an XML-based open standard. Created by the OASIS Security Services Technical Committee, SaaS vendors like Google and Microsoft support SAML.

  • Redmine provides Amazon web services security.

Redmine used AWS (Amazon Web Services) infrastructure for data security and enhanced performance on the Redmine platforms. Also, the system performance is automatically scaled, and all accounts are hosted on Ireland servers. All security certificates like ISO/IEC 27001:2013 are provided. The privacy management standard ensures comprehensive security controls.

How To Check If Your Redmine Is Secure Or Not?

The Redmine security scanner determines the version you have installed and then provides a list of all possible security vulnerabilities for it. Also, the server configuration is checked so that everything is safely set up. Depending on these results, Redmine Security Scanner assigns one of these grades:

  • A+

Your installation is up-to-date. A properly configured TLS/SSL protects it, and no one can access it through an unencrypted connection. All security-related server headers are accurately configured. Well done!

  • A

Your installation is up-to-date. A properly configured TLS/SSL protects it, and no one can access it through an unencrypted connection. But some security-related server headers are missing. We insist on them for a more hardened server

  • B

Your installation is up-to-date. A properly configured TLS/SSL protects it. But, you use a self-authorized or unreliable certificate. This may result in security concerns in your browser. Attackers can misuse it to find out your passwords and information.

  • C

Your installation is up-to-date. But anyone with an unencrypted plain text HTTP connection can access it. If an attacker is in the same wireless network as the users, they can intercept all traffic. If unencrypted access is granted, even a server with TLS/SSL enabled will get a similar rating.

  • D

Your installation is not up-to-date, and you are using a very old version. Therefore, your account is vulnerable to at least one security issue, even if it’s less severe.

  • E

Your installation is not up-to-date, and you are using a very old version. Therefore, your account is vulnerable to at least one security issue, even if it’s moderately severe.

  • F

Your installation is not up-to-date, and you are using a very old version. Therefore, your account is vulnerable to at least one security issue, which is highly severe.

If any user has issues with the results displayed by the Redmine Security Scanner, they can contact customer support. The issue will be readily addressed, and any improvements, if possible, will be ma

Redmine Project Management Tool Market Share:

With the best indexing facilities and advanced data science, Redmine monitors the market share of about 15,00 tech products, including Project Management. Billions of public data are scanned to provide deep insight into every company, and they have an average of 100 data fields per company. In the Project Management sector, Redmine owns a market share of about 21.6%.

redmine-market-share

If seen by industry, Tedmine customers majorly belong to the IT and services (26%), Computer Software (15%), and the Internet (5%) segments.

redmine-industry-share

If seen by country, Redmine customers belong to the United States (32%), France (11%), and India (6%).

redmine-distribution-of-companies-using-by-country

Top 10 Companies That Use Redmine

  • Quantum GIS, Open Source GIS – http://hub.qgis.org/projects

  • Replicant, a fully free Android distribution – http://redmine.replicant.us/

  • FreeNAS, open source storage operating system – https://bugs.freenas.org/projects/freenas

  • Alpine Linux, a security-oriented, lightweight Linux distribution – https://bugs.alpinelinux.org/

  • Ukrainian University Linux Competence Center at Chernigiv State Technological University and Students’ Team work site of CS department

  • The University of Oregon, Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC), Network Documentation Tool – http://netdot.uoregon.edu

  • Astrogeology Support and Issue Tracking, U.S. Geological Survey – https://isis.astrogeology.usgs.gov/fixit/

  • Applidium, iPad, and iPhone application development

  • Savoir-faire Linux, experts open source, Linux et FLOSS

  • Kingdom Come, realistic medieval RPG – http://support.kingdomcomerpg.com/

How To Install Redmine: Easy Steps

  • Step 1: Download the Redmine application
Download a released package and extract it to any desired location on your system. You can also check out the files directly from the version control system.
  • Step 2Create an empty database and accompanying user
            
                MySQL
CREATE DATABASE redmine CHARACTER SET utf8mb4;
CREATE USER 'redmine'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'my_password';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON redmine.* TO 'redmine'@'localhost'
            
        

For versions of MySQL 5.5.2 or lower – use utf8 instead of utf8mb4

            
                CREATE DATABASE redmine CHARACTER SET utf8;
CREATE USER 'redmine'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'my_password';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON redmine.* TO 'redmine'@'localhost'
            
        

For versions of MySQL 5.0.2 or lower – skip the ‘CREATE USER’ step and instead:

            
                CREATE DATABASE redmine CHARACTER SET utf8;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON redmine.* TO 'redmine'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'my_password';
PostgreSQL
CREATE ROLE redmine LOGIN ENCRYPTED PASSWORD 'my_password' NOINHERIT VALID UNTIL 'infinity';
CREATE DATABASE redmine WITH ENCODING='UTF8' OWNER=redmine;
            
        
SQLite

Skip this step. A database file will be created during Step 6.

SQL Server

The database, login, and user can be created within SQL Server Management Studio with a few clicks.If you prefer the command line option with SQLCMD, here’s some basic example:Show SQL
  • Step 3Connect and configure the database
Copy config/database.yml.example to config/database.yml and edit this file in order to configure your database settingsExample for a MySQL database (default port):
            
                production:
adapter: mysql2
database: redmine
host: localhost
username: redmine
password: "my_password"
            
        

If the server doesn’t run on the standard port, you can use the following configuration:

            
                production:
adapter: mysql2
database: redmine
host: localhost
port: 3307
username: redmine
password: "my_password"
            
        

Example for a PostgreSQL database (default port):

            
                production:
  adapter: postgresql
  database: <your_database_name>
  host: <postgres_host>
  username: <postgres_user>
  password: "<postgres_user_password>" 
  encoding: utf8
  schema_search_path: <database_schema> (default - public
            
        

Example for an SQLite database:

            
                production:
  adapter: sqlite3
  database: db/redmine.sqlite3
Example for a SQL Server database (default host localhost, default port 1433):
production:
  adapter: sqlserver
  database: redmine
  username: redmine # should match the database user name
  password: "redminepassword" # should match the login password
            
        
  • Step 4 Install the dependencies.
Redmine uses Bundler to control dependencies. So, you just install Bundler first, in case you’re using Ruby 2.5:
            
                gem install bundler
Next, install all gems needed by redmine. You can use this command:
bundle config set --local without 'development test' 
bundle install
            
        
  • Step 5 Generate the session store secret
In this step, Rails generates a random key and encodes cookies so that session data can be stored without any hassle.
            
                bundle exec rake generate_secret_token
            
        
  • Step 6 Creating database schema objects.
Create a database structure. Use this command under the root directory:
            
                RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rake db:migrate
Windows syntax:
set RAILS_ENV=production
bundle exec rake db:migrate
            
        
  • Step 7 Setting the database default data
Run this command to insert the default data configuration in the database:
            
                RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rake redmine:load_default_data
            
        

The data set language to be loaded is prompted by Redmine.

Unices:

            
                RAILS_ENV=production REDMINE_LANG=fr bundle exec rake redmine:load_default_data
Windows:
set RAILS_ENV=production
set REDMINE_LANG=fr
bundle exec rake redmine:load_default_data
            
        
  • Step 8 Getting file system permissions

The user running the application must have been granted access to these subdirectories:

1.files
2.log
3.tmp and tmp/pdf
4.public/plugin_assets

For instance, if you run the app with a Redmine user account:

            
                mkdir -p tmp tmp/pdf public/plugin_assets
sudo chown -R redmine:redmine files log tmp public/plugin_assets
sudo chmod -R 755 files log tmp public/plugin_assets
            
        
  • Step 9 Testing the installation

To test the installation, you can run the WEBrick web server:

Once this has started, go to your browser and point to http://localhost:3000/.

            
                bundle exec rails server webrick -e production
            
        

The application welcome page will now be visible.

  • Step 10 Log into the application

You can use a default administrator account to log in:

  • login: admin

  • password: admin

Then, go to Administration and Settings to modify app settings as per your requirements.

What is BitNami Redmine Stack?

A renowned Rails-based open-source tracker, Redmine helps you find bugs and manage critical issues for several projects at the same time. The Redmine package by Bitnami gives users an efficient install solution at one click for Redmine. You can download virtual machines or use your Redmine server in the cloud account. Extremely flexible with role-based access and time-tracking facilities, Redmine provides SCM integration, including Git and customer support. Redmine is quite similar to other bug-tracking systems, but it is better because it is open-source and absolutely free. The interface is perfectly clean to define a new project and get started.

How Do I Create A Project In Redmine?

Project management is very easy on Redmine. But, if you are a new user, you might have some questions regarding creating projects on the software. In this section, we discuss in detail the easy steps to creating your first project on Redmine.

  • Step 1 Create a Profile

Both administrator and non-administrator users can have the responsibility of managing projects and are given permission accordingly. So, you become the admin, and you have a development team working on the assigned project. The very first step is to install the Redmine application. Register yourself and create an admin profile. After signing in, you can view the homepage with various options.

redmine-setup-profile-creation

In the upper-left corner below Administration, you can find the Projects section. To begin, click on New Project.

redmine-setup-part-2
  • Step 2 Add Project Details
In the pop-up window on the project page, fill in all required information. Two mandatory fields ‘Project Name’ and ‘Project Identifier’ must be written. Now, the latter field often creates a lot of confusion for new users of the application.
redmine-add-project-details-setup-process
redmine-add-project-details-setup
To clarify, this field is for the URLS and is for Redmine’s internal usage. According to the default settings of the project, the value in this field might be generated automatically, and after you have saved the project, you cannot alter it. Some other fields must also be filled in:

  • Description: A brief outline of the project shall be displayed on the Overview page.

  • Homepage: A link to the homepage of the project, also visible on the Overview page.

  • Public: Checks to grant public access to known and random users.

  • Modules: Selecting plugins and modules to be incorporated into the project for efficient management.

  • Trackers: Choosing the required trackers for the project

  • Inherit members: Adding all users from the parent project.

After filling in these fields, click on ‘Create and continue.’
redmine-project-management-img
  • Step 3 Add Users

You must register your team to assign a project. Users are manually activated by default. So, after finishing the data fill-up on the registration page, users can log in as Admon. Next, go to Project Settings and click on Members. Then. Click on New Member.

redmine-project-management-customer
redmine-add-project-management-3
  • Step 4 Assign Roles to Users
Once all your project team members are active, you can assign project roles accordingly. One user can be assigned multiple roles. The default roles available are manager, developer, reporter, etc. These roles will determine each user’s contribution to the project.

How To Use Redmine

  • Register: Once you click on the ‘Register’ tab at the upper-right corner, the register page opens for registration. To access the Redmine application, you have to register for it. Fill in all the required data, especially the mandatory fields, pointed out with a red asterisk. After registration, you can access the app, add projects by clicking on ‘New Project’ if you are an admin, and add new members to the project as per requirements.
how-to-use-redmine-1
  • Login: You can log in to Redmine on the login page. Also, if you forget the password you can reset it by clicking on ‘Lost password’. The link only goes to admins who have activated it. Registered users have a Login ID and Password they can use to log in.
how-to-use-redmine-2
  • Create an issue: Registered users can create a defect if required. Log in and go to the New Issue tab in the header. Various trackers like Defect, Feature, and Patch are also available. These are fields that must be filled in to create issues:

    • Tracker to indicate the category of the issue.
    • Subject to summarise the issue in a lone line.
    • Description to provide a brief outline of the bug and reproducing steps.
    • Status to provide the current status of the bug: new, resolved, or closed.
    • Files to upload images, for example, screenshots.

When all the details have been given, a new defect will be created.
how-to-use-redmine-4
  • Search: The search box is available in the top, right-hand corner. It is a simple textbox for users to search for pre-existing defects or any new defects found in the project

  • Users can simply put in the Issue ID and press enter. They will be redirected to the Advanced Search. They can also refine the search as per requirement.
redmine-project-management-search

How To Manage a Project Using Redmine

Managing projects on Redmine include editing, archiving, deleting, or closing a project. A project list helps you do all of these things very easily.

  • Projects List: A project list displays all ongoing projects by default. You can filter the status to “All’ to view all existing projects, both archived and active. Remember that standard users have a project list as well. To access that, you can simply click on ‘Projects’. Non-administrator members can start or close a project on this list. This presented list in the one location where you can manage projects according to user permissions provided. The featured columns are:
    • Project: Name of the project
    • Description: A brief description of the project
    • Created: The date when this project was created
    • Public: If the ‘green pipe’ sign is visible, this project is public. Only if you have been granted access by the project administrator can you view non-public projects
projects-in-redmine
  • Closing a project: When you close a project, you are setting it to a read-only status. A closed project is accessible like any other regular project,, but you cannot edit it anymore. The link to closing a project is available, based on every project visible in the ‘Overview’ segment. It is not a part of the projects list.
  •  
  • Archiving a project: To archive a specific project, select the ‘Archive’ icon from the projects list. You can no longer see it and only the administrator can unarchive it, if required. Any subproject included in it will also be archived.
  •  
  • Copying an existing project: To copy a project, click on ‘Copy’. All details, including settings like custom fields and trackers, will also be copied. If you want to add specific fields like Forums, Versions, Members, etc., to your new project, you can also select them individually.
copying-exisiting-projects
  • Deleting a project: Click on ‘Trash’. A separate screen will ask you to reconfirm your action. The entire project, including sub-projects, will be removed. Unlike Archive, a deleted project cannot be restored.

What are the benefits of using Redmine?

In this section, we discuss the top 5 benefits of using Redmine as a project management software.

  • Redmine can be an Agile PM tool.

When extended with the Agile plugin, Redmine ensures the effective implementation of facilities for better project management. Software development teams will be able to deliver projects more central to their client’s objectives far before the deadline and with a better communication system.

  • You can manage time tracking and resource management on Redmine

Software projects, Agile or otherwise, should be delivered to clients following time and material principles. So, if this is an important factor, companies have to be very rigorous regarding time tracking. With Redmine’s time tracking module that includes sheets and reports, this work becomes easier. Also, with a resource management plugin, you can also manage limited human resources. A resource planner allows you to delegate tasks to the most professional team members. You can also track users who are free or overworking.

  • You can integrate Redmine with a code repository.

An excellent feature of Redmine is integration with code repositories like GitHub. You can tie code changes with a bug and related issues. Therefore, you can always keep tracking the changes, where they originated, and why they were done. Integrating with Redmine Cloud or GitHub is a very simple process and can be done within 10-15 minutes.

  • You can start a helpdesk on Redmine

With the Help Desk, plugin added to Redmine, all emails from projects are turned into support tickets and related to development or bug requests. Users can connect their mailboxes and contacts so that all the messages can be viewed in one place only. Messages can be kept on Redmine, but if the number of requests increases, responding on time becomes difficult. The plugin eases this task by automating the team’s efforts in providing insights into the team’s functionality.

  • You can make invoices and estimates

When a team negotiates with a new client, the Invoices plugin helps you bill the time entries and prepare the money flow. The invoice contents are automatically translated into several languages. With one click, you can use the template to adjust it to required regulations in specific countries like Germany or Russi

Best Features of Redmine

Some of the best features of Redmine:

  • Support available for multiple projects

  • Support is available for multiple subprojects.

  • Flexible role-dependent access controlling

  • Flexible bug-tracking facility

  • Gantt charts and calendars

  • Rime tracking facility

  • Multiple LDAP authentication

  • Self-registration support for users

  • Multilingual support system

  • Multiple database support system

  • Feature requests

  • Notification via email and on the feed

  • Customized fields

  • Efficient data and news management

  • Wikis and forums for individual projects

  • Repository browser and diff viewer

What is the Redmine Plugin?

From bug trackers to agile development tools and everything else, Redmine plugins are always variable to simplify the execution and management of projects. These plugins can be downloaded for free and can be used if you have a basic knowledge of programming. 

Top Redmine Plugins

Here is a list of some of the most popular and efficient Redmine plugins:

  • Usersnap
  • Agile
  • RedmineUP Checklist
  • Hide Sidebar
  • RedmineUP CRM
  • Monitoring and Controlling
  • Gantt charts
  • RedmineUP Helpdesk
  • Redmine Budgets
  • RedmineUp Drive

How to Install Redmine Plugin

You can simply download the required plugins and unpack them in the redmine/apps/redmine/htdocs/plugins folder. Open a browser and go to the folder where Redmine has already been installed. Run the script use_redmine.bat with a double click. A new window will open with a line of command. Enter the following commands:

            
                cd apps\redmine\htdocs
bundle install --without development test --no-deployment
bundle exec rake redmine:plugins RAILS_ENV=production
            
        

Next, restart the Bitnami application.

What is the Redmine Theme?

A flexible and efficient project management platform Redmine is a very strong asset for business enterprises. One of the best features of the software that makes it so popular is the adaptability it provided by allowing users to use themes. Redmine themes can be used to alter the platform’s visualization and improve its functionality.

How to Install Redmine Theme?

In this section, we discuss the easy steps by which you can install Redmine themes:

  • Go to Redmine’s root folder: cd /var/www/redmine

  • Copy and unarchive the required theme

  • cp circle_theme-3_0_0.zip /var/www/redmine/public/themes

  • cd /public/themes

  • unzip circle_theme-3_0_0.zip

  • This would lead to a directory path to application.css: /var/www/redmine/public/themes/cicle/stylesheets/application.css

  • Restart the Redmine so that you can see the list of newly installed themes.

  • Activate the theme by going to ‘Administration -> Settings” -> “Display”.

  • Select your new theme from the drop-down list and save your settings.

Most Popular Themes in Redmine

Here is a list of the top 10 Redmine items mostly preferred by clients:

  • BRT BOOSTMINE (Commercial)

  • BRT ZENMINE (Commercial)

  • REDMINE-EVOLUTION (Commercial)

  • A1 

  • Abacusmine(Commercial)

  • Bleuclair

  • Circle 

  • Coffee 

  • FluentMine (Free for personal use)

  • Nuno-Zeta

In conclusion, Redmine is a powerful project management tool that can help businesses and organizations streamline their projects, improve team collaboration, and achieve their goals.

Throughout this comprehensive step-by-step guide, we have covered everything you need to know to get started with Redmine, from installation and setup to managing tasks and tracking progress.

By following the best practices outlined in this guide, you can ensure that your team stays organized, communication is clear, and progress is tracked effectively. With Redmine, you can customize your workflow, assign tasks, and monitor progress to ensure that your projects are delivered on time and within budget.

Overall, Redmine offers an efficient and user-friendly way to manage your projects, and with the help of this guide, you can make the most out of this powerful tool. Whether you are a small business or a large enterprise, Redmine can help you achieve your project management goals and drive success for your organization.

Sachiin Gevariya

Sachin Gevariya is a Founder and Technical Director at Essence Solusoft. He is dedicated to making the best use of modern technologies to craft end-to-end solutions. He also has a vast knowledge of Cloud management. He loves to do coding so still doing the coding. Also, help employees for quality based solutions to clients. Always eager to learn new technology and implement for best solutions.